He was 70 and was reportedly working on an adaptation of the novel "Thérèse Desqueyroux" as a vehicle for "Amelie" star Audrey Tautou.
Miller is perhaps best known for "L'Effrontée," a 1985 drama about a young girl growing up in poverty, starring Charlotte Gainsbourg, and for "La Classe de Neige," a 1998 film about a young boy suffering anxiety attacks on a ski trip.
Miller won the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival for "La Classe de Neige," and received several César nominations for writing and directing.
Like Truffaut, who was an important mentor to the filmmaker, Miller often dealt with coming-of-age stories that he filmed in a French New Wave style.
His other notable works include "La Petite Voleuse," a 1988 drama about a petty thief that was based on an unfinished script by Truffaut; "Garde à vue," a 1981 mystery about a rape investigation; and "Dites-lui que je l'aime," a 1977 psychological thriller about a man obsessed with his former lover.
Before moving behind the camera, Miller worked as an assistant director on films from such legendary New Wave directors as Robert Bresson and Jean-Luc Godard.
He also served as production or unit manager on many of Truffaut's best known films, such as "Day for Night" and "The Wild Child."