How ‘Black Panther’ Designers Hannah Beachler and Ruth E Carter Built Wakanda With ‘a Root in Africa and Functionality’

TheWrap Oscar Magazine: “It felt like the next phase in inclusiveness, having not just people of color in charge of departments but women of color,” Carter says

A version of this story about Hannah Beachler and Ruth E. Carter appeared in the Down to the Wire issue of TheWrap’s Oscar magazine. 

When it was released last year, “Black Panther” earned worldwide acclaim for assembling the most talented cast of black actors ever seen in a blockbuster. It was hailed as a game-changer for Hollywood diversity, and the trend-setting on Ryan Coogler’s Marvel film was being made behind the camera as well.

“It felt like the next phase in inclusiveness, having not just people of color in charge of departments but women of color,” said costume designer Ruth E. Carter, who with her third nomination is now tied with Viola Davis and Octavia Spencer as the most-nominated African-American woman in Oscar history. (Her previous nods came for 1992’s “Malcolm X” and 1997’s “Amistad.”)

“Sometimes it’s hard to change people’s mindset,” Carter said. “Women still have to fight to show people that we know what we’re doing. That change is still in the works, but at least there’s more of us.”

Meanwhile, Hannah Beachler became the first black woman in the Oscars’ 91-year history to be nominated for production design. To get there, Beachler coordinated with Coogler and all the other design departments to turn Wakanda into a living, breathing world. Among those she worked with was Carter, best known for her longtime collaboration with Spike Lee.

“We talked about everything — the stories behind our ideas, the aesthetics as it related to characters, sets, tribes, places and scenes,” Beachler said. “I would go into Ruth’s shop once a week or so, and she’d walk me through and we’d talk about the thousands of garments, jewelry, etc. It was about constant communication, constant sharing of ideas with each other, the director and producers. That’s how we made it work — by letting each other into our unique processes.”

Through their combined work, the “Black Panther” team built a “Wakanda Bible” that told the history and culture of Wakanda and its place in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The scope of their work can be seen in a single shot, when T’Challa (Chadwick Boseman) arrives at Warrior Falls to officially become king of Wakanda. Carter had to design dozens of outfits for actors playing members of the five tribes of the kingdom, and the inspirations came from tribes all over Africa.

“It was one of the last scenes on the shooting schedule, and we were all exhausted,” Carter said. “But I knew this scene was important because Ryan told us this scene needed to be glorious. I scheduled fittings around my normal schedule, and I would have actors come in to be sized up and I’d compare it to my research.”

“Someone would come in and I’d take one look and say, ‘You look like a perfect Masai warrior.’ And they would tell me, ‘Well, I was told to show up as a Himba,’ and I’d say, ‘No, no, wrong, you’re Masai.'”

Beachler took her design inspirations a step further, not just thinking of where the architectural designs for Wakanda’s buildings might come from but also how they’re built. This was particularly important when designing the home of the Jabari, the one Wakandan tribe that has shunned the nation’s technological advancements. There, wood is emphasized over metal, so Beachler took inspiration not from Africa, but from Japan.



“In M’Baku’s throne room, the wood walls you see as you enter the room are done using the Japanese technique, Shou Sugi Ban. It’s a process that involves charring a wood surface to render it a deep charcoal black, making it weatherproof,” Beachler explains.

“In our story, the Jabari tribe do not use the metal resource vibranium. In their region, the earth is saturated with vibranium dust, making the trees as strong and powerful as the metal when the wood is burned. This more organic technology is shown in the burnt wood of this particular set.”

And of course, the “Black Panther” comic books were an inspiration as well, particularly when it came time for Carter to design her most eye-popping outfits: the uniforms for the Dora Milaje. Various designs for Wakanda’s royal guards have been imagined by comic artists over the years, including Anthony Francisco, the Marvel artist tasked with the concept design for “Black Panther.”

It was up to Carter to take those designs and figure out how the people of an African nation would design such a uniform that, in her words, “was both wearable art and a piece of armor.”

“The red color needed to be bright, because we were only building about eight or 10 Dora costumes. The neck rings needed to be bright too. We silver and gold plated them so they stood out and showed their rank as an elite force. As we went along, I’m examining the beads, the bodysuit, and making sure that every element has both a root in Africa and functionality.”

Many of the details Carter and Beachler included in the film may have only been on screen for a few seconds, but Marvel fans, having honed their eye for such details from dissecting “Avengers” trailers, caught on quickly.

“I did write a note to everyone on Twitter around Christmas time in the Wakandan script that Zach Fannin and I designed,” Beachler said. “And I’m telling you, it wasn’t even a week before people had the whole alphabet! It was very impressive.”

Beachler also found that creating Wakanda with her colleagues was an emotional anchor. Production on “Black Panther” began after the 2016 election, and emotions were running high.

“I said to Ryan, ‘How are we going to make it through all of this?’ He opened up his phone and pulled up a picture of all of us standing there on location — strong, warriors — and he said, ‘This is hope.’ That’s what it meant to go to set every day and see the array of people, colors, genders, religions, sexual orientations, all of it. Hope beyond all else.”

To read more of TheWrap’s Down to the Wire Oscar magazine, click here.

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