Nelson Mandela has died. He was the father and president of a new South Africa, and the conscience in a fight for freedom that resonated all over the world.
As we did on Nelson Mandela Day — his birthdate, July 18 — we look back on five speeches that were crucial to his life and his message. Though he existed far outside the comfortable realm of entertainment, he brilliantly used mass media to spread his anti-apartheid message far beyond the restrictive borders of his own country.
Also read: Nelson Mandela Dead at 95
Here are five interviews in the life of the legend.
1961: Mandela’s First TV Interview
Mandela gave his first television interview a year after government security forces killed 69 blacks who were demonstrating against apartheid, a system that denied them the right to vote, own property, or even move freely through the country.
Speaking to ITV from a secret hideout, the then-42-year-old Mandela outraged South African leaders by calling for one man, one vote. He also said South Africa was a country of many people, rejecting the notion that Europeans should be banished.
But he alarmed the government the most with his cautious answer about whether he remained committed to non-violence: “There are many people who feel that it is useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and nonviolence against a government whose reply is only savage attacks on an unarmed and defenseless people.”
He was arrested, charged with treason, and sent to Robben Island for nearly three decades.
1994: Before the Election
After worldwide pressure on the South African government, new president F.W. de Klerk released Mandela in 1990. Mandela continued his fight for equal rights, even as he and de Klerk tried to prevent violence. They faced each other as opponents even as they tried to hold the country together. Before the election, both men spoke with CBS News’ Dan Rather.
In 2000, after his presidency, Mandela spoke with Oprah Winfrey about his life and struggles, surprising her with his humility.
2005: Centre of Memory
In 2005, Mandela spoke with Verne Harris, a director of the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, an organization that promotes peace, human rights and democracy by examining the past. (It also, interestingly enough, calls out scams that seek to take advantage of Mandela’s unimpeachable reputation.)
In the interview, Mandela discusses his life on Robben Island, including his jailers’ attempts to make his treatment seem better than it was for the benefit of visitors.
2008: 90th Birthday
In 2004, Mandela said he was finished with interviews. But he made an exception for CNN on his 90th birthday. “What day is it?” he joked, pretending not to realize he had reached another milestone.
Surrounded by his grandchildren and his wife, Graca Machel, whom he married on his 80th birthday, Mandela said one of his greatest regrets was not spending more time with his family. Of course, he didn’t have the option for 27 years.